Countries and the “Enlarged or Secondary” Regions

Юрій ЧернецькийYuriy O. CHERNETSKIY

(Kharkiv and Zhytomyr), Doctor of Sciences in Sociology, Ph.D. in Economics & Management, Master of Arts in Political Economy, author of 12 books and more than 400 articles – specially for the NEWSSKY.COM.UA Journal

 

On the 160 States and 40 Primary Political-Economic Regions of the World under My Global Ranking. Part I: Countries and the “Enlarged or Secondary” Regions

On this political map 196 countries of the world are presented.

 

Dear Readers! This paper is an attempt to continue, develop and extend my 2016/2017 research work devoted to the international political economy, comparative government and economics matters.

 

In the first of the series’ articles I have proposed the set of global rankings for 160 countries of the world with the 2014 and 2015 population of 0.7 million or more. Powerful correlation between the GDP (PPP) per capita and the Democracy Index has shown that very strong positive (i.e., definite and practical) connection exists between democracy and economy development.

 

The second article of my series has been devoted to the new conception and methods of societal governance provision and evaluation. In this context two new international political economy indicators have been introduced (please see below) and global rankings by them for 160 countries of the world are presented. In the third article these indicators have been used for the “primary political-economic regions” and “secondary (enlarged) regions of the world” achievements evaluation.

 

In the fourth, purely academic, article [Chernetskiy Y.O. About the New Comparative Government and International Political Economy Paradigm / Yuriy O. Chernetskiy // Актуальні проблеми молоді в сучасних соціально-економічних умовах: Матеріали Міжнародної науково-практичної конференції, 23–24 березня 2017 року. – Zhytomyr, 2017. – С. 135–146.] the new comparative government and international political economy paradigm has been substantiated on the research base characterized above in two previous paragraphs. Finally, in the fifth article of my series the analysis has been extended to the 40 primary politicaleconomic regions of the world and the Global Europe (or the European World) concept & conception have been introduced.

 

The so called Democracy Index (DI) calculated by specialists of the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is the basic indicator for my research. The methodology of DI calculation is characterized in the publication “Democracy Index 2017: Free speech under attack” which can be found on the EIU site in PDF format. This index, on a 0 to 10 scale, is based on the ratings for 60 main political indicators.

 

I have proved that it is useful to calculate the analogue of politics Democracy Index measuring social institution of the economy results, namely: the Economic Performance Index (EPI). I have proposed to count up this index – like the DI – on a 0 to 10 scale as the simple division result, a country’s GNI (PPP) per capita being the numerator. As for the denominator, the country’s GNI (PPP) per capita of 100,000 international dollars current theoretical maximum seems adequate. For example, the 2015 GNI (PPP) per capita of Qatar – 138,480 international dollars – had been the outcome of absolutely extraordinary circumstances, and its 2015 EPI score was 10 exactly.

 

Finally, I have proved that it is useful to introduce the indicator which provides us with combined reflection of all political and economic activities in a society outcome. I have named it in such a way: the Index of Political Economy Achievements (IPEA). It reflects the international or comparative political economy viewpoint. The index for a country is calculated, also on a 0 to 10 scale, as the simple average of two indicators characterized earlier: the Democracy Index and the Economic Performance Index.

 

To finalize the previous part of my analysis, I propose such a vision. The Democracy Index and GNI or GDP (PPP) per capita are generalizing – from the mankind/humanity  viewpoint – indicators of the society’s development, government’s effectiveness & efficiency and individuals’ social comfort in the political and economic spheres of life correspondingly. Also in several cases (China, the Muslim World and so on) we see somewhat different attitude to both the indicators, mentioned in previous sentence, or at least to one of them because of the basic values’ ideological deviance at the societal level.

 

My materials’ pep or go is the table (please see below) which contains the information on four ratings for 160 countries of the world with the 2015 and 2016 population of 0.8 million or more. The above-mentioned Democracy Index (DI) calculated by specialists of the EIU is the basic indicator for inclusion. In 2016 this index has been counted up also for six democratic “micro-states” with population from 0.3 to 0.6 million, namely: Iceland, Malta, Cabo Verde, Suriname, Luxembourg and Montenegro. Reference information on these countries is included into my table but without defining their ratings’ places.

 

Also the Democracy Index has not been calculated for Somalia (14.3 million 2016 population) and South Sudan (12.2 million 2016 population). These countries are “leaders” in sad sense for many years of the so called Fragile States Index (former Failed States Index) global rating. In fact, they have no minimally effective government of the united state’s scale. Finally, in the EIU rating the Chinese statehood is represented not only by China and Taiwan (in fact, the last has been functioning as an independent state for decades) but also by Hong Kong. As in the case of “micro-states”, I include in my table just reference information on Hong Kong without defining its ratings’ places.

 

Therefore, all 160 really existing and functioning states (countries) of the world with 0.8 million or more 2016 population are presented in my rating table.

 

Table 1

2016 RANKING BY THE INDEX OF POLITICAL ECONOMY ACHIEVEMENTS

(for 160 countries of the world with the 2016 population of 0.8 million and more; after the population data, Democracy and Economic Performance Indexes values – places of a country in the population, DI and EPI 2016 ratings are shown in brackets)

 

 

COUNTRIES

 

2016 population (thousands)

 

 

2016 Democracy Index

 

2016 Economic Performance Index

2016 Index of Political Economy Achievements 2016 IPEA change comparing to 2015
1. Norway 5,233 (115) 9.93 (001) 6.26 (006) 8.10 .09
–. Luxembourg 583 (–––) 8.81 (–––) 7.04 (–––) 7.93 (–.05)
2. Switzerland 8,372 (097) 9.09 (007) 6.37 (005) 7.73 +.05
3. Singapore 5,607 (112) 6.38 (064) 8.52 (002) 7.45 +.31
4. Ireland 4,773 (119) 9.15 (005) 5.69 (008) 7.42 +.40
–. Iceland 334 (–––) 9.50 (–––) 5.25 (–––) 7.38 (+.26)
5. Sweden 9,903 (087) 9.39 (002) 5.00 (013) 7.20 +.10
6. Denmark 5,731 (110) 9.20 (004) 5.11 (010) 7.16 +.21
7. Netherlands 17,018 (066) 8.80 (010) 5.07 (011) 6.94 +.07
8. United States 323,128 (003) 7.98 (018) 5.87 (007) 6.93 +.03
9. Australia 24,127 (053) 9.01 (009) 4.60 (016) 6.81 +.07
10. Germany 82,668 (016) 8.63 (011) 4.97 (014) 6.80 +.06
11. Canada 36,286 (038) 9.15 (005) 4.34 (020) 6.75 +.01
12. Austria 8,747 (094) 8.41 (012) 5.06 (012) 6.74 +.07
13. Finland 5,495 (113) 9.03 (008) 4.38 (019) 6.71 +.13
14. Qatar 2,570 (138) 3.18 (128) 10.00 (001) 6.59 0.00
15. New Zealand 4,693 (120) 9.26 (003) 3.77 (026) 6.52 +.11
16. Taiwan, the Province of China  

23,540 (055)

 

7.79 (029)

 

*4.81 (015)

 

6.30

 

+.04

17. United Kingdom 65,637 (022) 8.36 (013) 4.21 (022) 6.29 +.10
–. Hong Kong (China) 7,347 (–––) 6.42 (–––) 6.06 (–––) 6.24 (+.09)
18. Belgium 11,348 (078) 7.77 (031) 4.60 (016) 6.19 +.02
19. Japan 126,995 (011) 7.99 (017) 4.28 (021) 6.14 +.21
20. Kuwait 4,053 (127) 3.85 (114) 8.33 (003) 6.09 –.06
21. France 66,896 (021) 7.92 (020) 4.21 (022) 6.07 +.09
–. Malta 437 (–––) 8.39 (–––) 3.58 (–––) 5.99 (+.17)
22. Spain 46,444 (030) 8.30 (014) 3.65 (028) 5.98 +.10
23. Italy 60,601 (023) 7.98 (018) 3.84 (025) 5.91 +.12
24. Israel 8,547 (096) 7.85 (025) 3.73 (027) 5.79 +.14
25. Republic of Korea 51,246 (027) 7.92 (020) 3.58 (029) 5.75 +.03
26. Czech Republic 10,562 (084) 7.82 (027) 3.27 (030) 5.55 +.05
27. Portugal 10,325 (086) 7.86 (024) 3.00 (034) 5.43 +.10
28. Cyprus (area controlled by the government of Cyprus)  

847 (157)

 

7.65 (032)

 

3.14 (033)

 

5.40

+.08
29. Slovenia 2,065 (143) 7.51 (033) 3.24 (031) 5.38 +.07
30. Estonia 1,316 (151) 7.85 (025) 2.89 (036) 5.37 +.08
31. Mauritius 1,263 (153) 8.28 (015) 2.10 (050) 5.19 +.05
32. Lithuania 2,872 (137) 7.47 (034) 2.88 (037) 5.18 +.08
33. Slovakia 5,429 (114) 7.29 (038) 2.99 (035) 5.14 +.06
33. Trinidad and Tobago 1,365 (149) 7.10 (042) 3.18 (032) 5.14 –.02
33. Uruguay 3,444 (132) 8.17 (016) 2.11 (049) 5.14 +.03
36. Chile 17,910 (064) 7.78 (030) 2.33 (044) 5.06 +.05
37. United Arab Emirates 9,270 (092) 2.75 (140) 7.30 (004) 5.03 +.15
38. Greece 10,747 (082) 7.23 (040) 2.69 (039) 4.96 –.11
39. Latvia 1,960 (146) 7.31 (037) 2.59 (041) 4.95 +.05
40. Botswana 2,250 (140) 7.87 (023) 1.67 (060) 4.77 +.06
41. Poland 37,948 (036) 6.83 (048) 2.68 (040) 4.76 –.06
42. Costa Rica 4,857 (118) 7.88 (022) 1.58 (064) 4.73 0.00
43. Hungary 9,818 (088) 6.72 (051) 2.56 (042) 4.64 –.01
44. Malaysia 31,187 (045) 6.54 (060) 2.70 (038) 4.62 .+.09
44. Panama 4,034 (128) 7.13 (041) 2.10 (050) 4.62 0.00
46. Croatia 4,171 (126) 6.75 (049) 2.29 (047) 4.52 –.04
47. Bulgaria 7,128 (101) 7.01 (043) 1.95 (053) 4.48 +.03
48. Argentina 43,847 (032) 6.96 (045) 1.95 (053) 4.46 –.05
48. Romania 19,705 (059) 6.62 (056) 2.30 (045) 4.46 +.07
50. South Africa 55,909 (024) 7.41 (035) 1.29 (074) 4.35 –.08
–. Cabo Verde 540 (–––) 7.94 (–––) 0.62 (–––) 4.28 (+.06)
51. India 1,324,171 (002) 7.81 (028) 0.65 (103) 4.23 +.06
52. Brazil 207,653 (005) 6.90 (047) 1.48 (066) 4.19 –.05
53. Mexico 127,540 (010) 6.47 (062) 1.78 (056) 4.13 0.00
54. Jamaica 2,881 (135) 7.39 (036) 0.85 (093) 4.12 –.02
–. Suriname 558 (–––) 6.77 (–––) 1.45 (–––) 4.11 (–.11)
55. Dominican Republic 10,649 (083) 6.67 (052) 1.45 (067) 4.06 +.04
56. Indonesia 261,115 (004) 6.97 (044) 1.12 (081) 4.05 0.00
57. Columbia 48,653 (028) 6.67 (052) 1.39 (071) 4.03 +.04
58. Serbia 7,057 (102) 6.57 (059) 1.39 (071) 3.98 –.03
59. Peru 31,774 (043) 6.65 (054) 1.25 (075) 3.95 +.05
60. Philippines 103,320 (012) 6.94 (046) 0.94 (087) 3.94 +.07
61. Mongolia 3,027 (133) 6.62 (056) 1.15 (080) 3.89 +.02
62. Sri Lanka 21,203 (057) 6.48 (061) 1.20 (077) 3.84 +.05
63. Timor-Leste 1,269 (152) 7.24 (039) 0.34 (125) 3.79 –.05
–. Montenegro 623 (–––) 5.72 (–––) 1.79 (–––) 3.76 (–.04)
64. Saudi Arabia 32,276 (041) 1.93 (153) 5.59 (009) 3.76 +.05
64. Tunisia 11,403 (077) 6.40 (063) 1.12 (081) 3.76 –.17
66. El Salvador 6,345 (105) 6.64 (055) 0.82 (095) 3.73 0.00
66. Turkey 79,512 (018) 5.04 (090) 2.42 (043) 3.73 +.20
68. Namibia 2,480 (139) 6.31 (065) 1.04 (085) 3.68 0.00
69. Bahrain 1,425 (148) 2.79 (139) 4.43 (018) 3.61 +.28
70. Ghana 28,207 (049) 6.75 (049) 0.42 (116) 3.59 –.05
70. Oman 4,425 (124) 3.04 (134) 4.14 (024) 3.59 +.13
70. Paraguay 6,725 (104) 6.27 (066) 0.91 (088) 3.59 –.01
73. Albania 2,876 (136) 5.91 (075) 1.17 (079) 3.54 +.03
74. Guyana 773 (160) 6.25 (067) 0.78 (098) 3.52 +.12
75. Ecuador 16,385 (069) 5.81 (076) 1.11 (083) 3.46 –.04
75. Lesotho 2,204 (141) 6.59 (058) 0.33 (128) 3.46 0.00
75. Moldova (Republic of, excl. Transnistria)  

3,552 (130)

 

6.35 (064)

 

0.57 (108)

 

3.46

 

+.01

78. Georgia (excl. Abkhazia and S. Ossetia)  

3,719 (129)

 

5.93 (072)

 

0.95 (086)

 

3.44

 

+.03

79. Guatemala 16,582 (068) 5.92 (073) 0.78 (098) 3.35 +.01
80. Macedonia, the FYR 2,081 (142) 5.23 (088) 1.45 (067) 3.34 –.35
81. Thailand 68,864 (020) 4.92 (093) 1.61 (062) 3.27 –.05
82. Fiji 899 (156) 5.64 (082) 0.87 (091) 3.26 –.03
82. Ukraine 45,005 (031) 5.70 (079) 0.82 (095) 3.26 +.02
84. Papua New Guinea 8,085 (098) 6.03 (069) 0.42 (116) 3.23 +.07
84. Senegal 15,412 (072) 6.21 (068) 0.25 (132) 3.23 +.07
86. Zambia 16,591 (067) 5.99 (071) 0.39 (118) 3.19 –.13
87. Honduras 9,113 (093) 5.92 (074) 0.44 (113) 3.18 +.02
88. Bolivia 10,888 (079) 5.63 (083) 0.71 (101) 3.17 –.04
89. Lebanon 6,007 (109) 4.86 (096) 1.41 (070) 3.14 +.02
90. Bangladesh 162,952 (008) 5.73 (078) 0.38 (119) 3.06 +.01
90. Bosnia and Herzegovina 3,517 (131) 4.87 (094) 1.24 (076) 3.06 +.11
92. Venezuela 31,568 (044) 4.68 (100) *1.38 (073) 3.03 –.31
93. Tanzania 55,572 (025) 5.76 (077) 0.27 (131) 3.02 +.10
94. Mali 17,995 (063) 5.70 (079) 0.21 (136) 2.96 +.01
95. Benin 10,872 (080) 5.67 (081) 0.22 (135) 2.95 –.02
96. Iraq 37,203 (037) 4.08 (107) 1.72 (057) 2.90 +.09
97. Bhutan 798 (158) 4.93 (092) 0.82 (095) 2.88 +.03
98. Malawi 18,092 (062) 5.55 (084) 0.11 (155) 2.83 0.00
99. Kenya 48,462 (029) 5.33 (085) 0.31 (129) 2.82 0.00
100. Morocco 35,277 (039) 4.77 (098) 0.77 (100) 2.77 +.05
101. Russian Federation 144,342 (009) 3.24 (127) 2.25 (048) 2.75 –.10
102. Uganda 41,488 (033) 5.26 (087) 0.18 (141) 2.72 +.02
103. Gabon 1,980 (145) 3.74 (116) 1.68 (059) 2.71 –.12
104. Liberia 4,614 (121) 5.31 (086) 0.07 (159) 2.69 –.18
104. Nicaragua 6,150 (107) 4.81 (097) 0.56 (109) 2.69 –.20
106. Kazakhstan 17,797 (065) 3.06 (132) 2.30 (045) 2.68 –.03
107. Kyrgyzstan 6,083 (108) 4.93 (091) 0.34 (125) 2.64 –.19
108. Belarus 9,507 (090) 3.54 (120) 1.72 (057) 2.63 –.03
109. Madagascar 24,895 (052) 5.07 (089) 0.15 (149) 2.61 +.11
110. Nepal 28,983 (046) 4.86 (095) 0.25 (132) 2.56 +.05
111. Nigeria 185,990 (007) 4.50 (102) 0.58 (107) 2.54 –.06
112. Algeria 40,606 (034) 3.56 (119) 1.44 (069) 2.50 –.19
113. Palestine 4,552 (123) 4.49 (103) *0.43 (114) 2.46 –.08
114. Pakistan 193,203 (006) 4.33 (104) 0.56 (109) 2.45 –.02
115. Burkina Faso 18,646 (060) 4.70 (099) 0.17 (144) 2.44 0.00
116. Jordan 9,456 (091) 3.96 (111) 0.90 (089) 2.43 –.04
117. Armenia 2,925 (134) 3.88 (113) 0.90 (089) 2.39 –.05
118. Myanmar 52,885 (026) 4.20 (106) 0.55 (111) 2.38 +.06
119. China 1,378,665 (001) 3.14 (129) 1.55 (065) 2.35 +.06
120. Sierra Leone 7,396 (100) 4.55 (101) 0.13 (153) 2.34 –.02
121. Cuba 11,476 (076) 3.46 (122) *1.19 (078) 2.33 –.36
122. Cambodia 15,762 (071) 4.27 (105) 0.35 (123) 2.31 +.01
123. Egypt 95,689 (014) 3.31 (126) 1.10 (084) 2.21 +.08
124. Iran 80,277 (017) 2.34 (147) 2.01 (052) 2.18 +.25
125. Mauritania 4,301 (125) 3.96 (112) 0.38 (119) 2.17 0.00
126. Azerbaijan 9,762 (089) 2.65 (141) 1.62 (061) 2.14 –.08
127. Haiti 10,847 (081) 4.02 (109) 0.18 (141) 2.10 +.04
128. Côte D’Ivoire 23,696 (054) 3.81 (115) 0.36 (121) 2.09 +.27
129. Mozambique 28,829 (047) 4.02 (108) 0.12 (154) 2.07 –.29
130. Niger 20,673 (058) 3.96 (110) 0.10 (156) 2.03 +.05
131. Angola 28,813 (048) 3.40 (123) 0.61 (105) 2.01 +.01
132. Viet Nam 92,701 (015) 3.38 (124) 0.62 (104) 2.00 –.05
133. Comoros 796 (159) 3.71 (117) 0.15 (149) 1.93 0.00
133. Swaziland 1,343 (150) 3.03 (135) 0.83 (094) 1.93 –.03
135. Cameroon 23,439 (056) 3.46 (121) 0.36 (121) 1.91 –.08
136. Ethiopia 102,403 (013) 3.60 (118) 0.17 (144) 1.89 –.11
137. Equatorial Guinea 1,221 (154) 1.70 (156) 1.83 (055) 1.77 –.48
138. Congo 5,126 (116) 2.91 (136) 0.54 (112) 1.73 +.36
138. Togo 7,606 (099) 3.32 (125) 0.14 (151) 1.73 –.04
140. Turkmenistan 5,663 (111) 1.83 (155) 1.61 (062) 1.72 +.01
141. Guinea 12,396 (074) 3.14 (130) 0.19 (138) 1.67 +.04
142. Rwanda 11,918 (075) 3.07 (131) 0.19 (138) 1.63 +.01
143. Zimbabwe 16,150 (070) 3.05 (133) 0.18 (141) 1.62 +.01
144. Djibouti 942 (155) 2.83 (138) *0.34 (125) 1.59 –.01
145. Gambia 2,039 (144) 2.97 (136) 0.16 (147) 1.57 0.00
146. Libya 6,293 (106) 2.25 (148) *0.87 (091) 1.56 –.25
147. Democratic Republic of the Congo  

78,736 (019)

 

2.91 (137)

 

0.08 (157)

 

1.50

 

+.01

148. Lao People’s Democratic Republic  

6,758 (103)

 

2.37 (145)

 

0.59 (106)

 

1.48

 

+.10

149. Sudan 39,579 (035) 2.37 (144) 0.43 (114) 1.40 +.01
150. Afghanistan 34,656 (040) 2.55 (142) 0.19 (138) 1.37 –.11
151. Uzbekistan 31,848 (042) 1.95 (151) 0.67 (102) 1.31 +.02
152. Eritrea 4,955 (117) 2.37 (146) *0.14 (151) 1.26 +.01
153. Burundi 10,524 (085) 2.40 (143) 0.08 (157) 1.24 –.04
154. Yemen 27,584 (050) 2.07 (149) 0.25 (132) 1.16 –.10
155. Tajikistan 8,735 (095) 1.89 (154) 0.35 (123) 1.12 –.03
156. Guinea Bissau 1,816 (147) 1.98 (150) 0.16 (147) 1.07 +.03
157. Syrian Arab Republic 18,430 (061) 1.43 (159) *0.29 (130) 0.86 –.07
158. Chad 14,453 (073) 1.50 (158) 0.20 (137) 0.85 –.01
159. Central African Republic 4,595 (122) 1.61 (157) 0.07 (159) 0.84 +.02
160. Democratic People’s Republic of Korea  

25,369 (051)

 

1.08 (160)

 

*0.17 (144)

 

0.63

 

+.01

Sources of the data for the EPI and IPEA count: publications of the Economist Intelligence Unit (Democracy Index) and World Bank (population & GNI – or *GDP in 9 cases of GNI data absence – (PPP) per capita).

 

Because of “global economic lag” (please see the third article mentioned) the 160 countries’ results reflected by the IPEA – combined in its very nature – are lower than those in the realm of “pure” politics. Under this ranking I have picked up four groups of states with the scores of 5.50–10, 4–5.49, 3–3.99 and below 3 correspondingly. As one can see, per cent shares of all the groups are less than in the Democracy Index case (please compare figures with those from my article in Ukrainian), but not in the Economic Performance Index one:

 

1. Societies with the highest level of political economy achievements – 26 (16.3%)

 

2. Societies with high level of political economy achievements – 31 (19.4%)

 

3. Societies with satisfactory level of political economy achievements – 36 (22.5%)

 

4. Societies with low level of political economy achievements – 67 (41.9%)

 

The distribution between two categories of countries by their IPEA values in 2016 (and 2015) was such:

 

  • Societies with relatively high level of political economy achievements (the scores of 4–10) – 57 (35.6%)

 

  • Societies with relatively low level of political economy achievements (the scores below 4) – 103 (64.4%)

 

In 2016 almost all countries of the highest level of political economy achievements group attained IPEA growth, and often very substantial. It was their distinctive feature.

 

Then, I have proposed the distribution of 160 countries embraced with my ratings among the eight, to say, enlarged or secondary regions of the world (the regions of Europe and Russia & Post-Soviet Asia have been extracted by me from the World Bank etc. classifications’ region of “Europe & Central Asia” for better representation of their specific features):

 

1. Europe (including Belarus, Cyprus and Georgia, not including Israel) – 36

2. North America – 2

3. Latin America & the Caribbean – 23

4. Sub-Saharan Africa – 43

5. North Africa & Middle East (including Iran and Turkey) – 21

6. South Asia (including Afghanistan) – 7

7. East Asia & Pacific – 20

8. Russia & Post-Soviet Asia (including Armenia and Azerbaijan) – 8

 

Let me emphasize that even the “secondary” or “enlarged” regions I treat as real communities of societies, with strong enough mutual influence of constituting countries, their governments and Peoples in political, economic and spiritual spheres.

 

Table 2

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF 160 COUNTRIES BY THE 2016 IPEA GROUPS

 

COUNTRIES Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 TOTAL
1. Europe 15 13 7 1 36
2. North America 2 2
3. Latin America & the Caribbean 11 9 3 23
4. Sub-Saharan Africa 3 6 34 43
5. North Africa & Middle East 3 1 6 11 21
6. South Asia 1 2 4 7
7. East Asia & Pacific 6 2 6 6 20
8. Russia & Post-Soviet Asia 8 8
TOTAL 26 31 34 69 160

 

While analyzing regional distribution of 160 countries by the 2016 IPEA groups reflected in Table 2 (please see above), let us emphasize only quite poor state of the Russia & Post-Soviet Asia countries region: they all belong to the group of societies with low level of political economy achievements.

 

To be continued.

 

,

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